Publications and Patents

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SV = Supplementary Video; SV_All = All supplementary videos in a single zip folder
ST = Supplementary Table; SF = Supplementary Figure
SI = Supplementary Information; SD = Supplementary Data


  • Bush NE, Solla SA, and Hartmann, MJZ (2021). Continuous, multidimensional coding of 3D complex tactile stimuli by primary sensory neurons of the vibrissal system Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , 118(32), 10.1073/pnas.2020194118
  • Zweifel NO, Bush NE, Abraham I, Murphey TD, and Hartmann, MJZ (2021). A dynamical model for generating synthetic data to active tactile behavior in the ratProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , 118(27), 10.1073/pnas.2011905118
  • Luo Y, Bresee CS, Rudnicki JW, and Hartmann, MJZ (2021). Constraints on the deformation of the vibrissa within the follicle PLoS Computational Biology, 17(4). 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1007887
  • Kent TA, Kim S, Kornilowicz G, Yuan WZ, Hartmann, MJZ and Bergbreiter S (2021). WhiskSight: A Reconfigurable, Vision-Based, Optical Whisker Sensing Array for Simultaneous Contact, Airflow, and Inertia Stimulus Detection IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, 6(2), 3357-3364


  • Furuta, T. Bush, N. E., Yang, A.E.T., Ebara S, Miyazaki N., Murata K., Hirai D., Shibata K, and Hartmann, M. J. (2020). The Cellular and Mechanical Basis for Response Characteristics of Identified Primary Afferents in the Rat Vibrissal System. Current Biology, 30(5), 815-
  • Collinson, DW, Emnett, HM, Hartmann, M. J.Z., and Brinson LC (2020). Tapered Polymer Whiskers to Enable Three-Dimensional Tactile Feature Extraction. Soft Robotics, 8(1). 44- 58
  • Zweifel N.O. and Hartmann, M. J. Z. (2020). Defining "active sensing" through an analysis of sensing energetics: homeoactive and alloactive sensingJournal of Neurophysiology , 124(1), 40-48.


  • Yan, S. W., Bush, N. E., andHartmann, M. J. (2019). Whisker vibrations and the activity of trigeminal primary afferents in response to airflow. Journal of Neuroscience, 39(30), 5881-5896.PDF
  • Bush, N. E., Zweifel, N. O., and Hartmann, M. J. (2019). Shaking Paws Is Not the Same as Shaking Hands. Neuron, 102(5), 911-913.PDF
  • Yang, A. E. T., Belli, H. M., and Hartmann, M. J. (2019). Quantification of vibrissal mechanical properties across the rat mystacial pad. Journal of neurophysiology , 121(5), 1879-1895.PDF


  • Yang AET, Hartmann MJZ, and Bergbreiter S (2018) Contact-resistive sensing of touch and airflow using a rat whisker. 7th IEEE RAS/EMBS International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics. August 26-29, 2018. Enschede, The Netherlands
  • Emnett HM, Graff MM, and Hartmann MJZ (2018) A Novel Whisker Sensor Used for 3D Contact Point Determination and Contour Extraction. Proceedings of Robotics: Science and Systems. June 2018. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. doi:110.15607/RSS.2018.XIV.059 PDF
  • Belli HM, Bresee CS, Graff MM, and Hartmann MJZ (2018) Quantifying the three-dimensional facial morphology of the laboratory rat with a focus on the vibrissae. PLoS ONE. 13(4):e0194981. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0194981 PMCID:PMC5886528 PDF


  • Zhuang C, Kubilius J, Hartman MJZ, Yamins D (2017) Toward Goal-Driven Neural Network Models for the Rodent Whisker-Trigeminal System. Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems 2552-2562 PDF
  • Abraham IA, Prabhakar A, Hartmann MJZ, Murphey TD (2017) Ergodic Exploration using Binary Sensing for Non-Parametric Shape Estimation. IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters 2(2):827-834 doi: 10.1109/LRA.2017.2654542 PDF SV
  • Huet LA, Rudnicki JW, Hartmann MJZ (2017) Tactile sensing with whiskers of various shapes: Determining the three-dimensional location of object contact based on mechanical signals at the whisker base. Soft Robotics 4(2):88-102 doi: 10.1089/soro.2016.0028 PMCID: PMC5467137 PDF
  • Belli HM, Yang AET, Bresee CS, and Hartmann MJZ (2017) Variations in vibrissal geometry across the rat mystacial pad: base diameter, medulla, and taper. Journal of Neurophysiology. 117:1807-1820 doi: 10.1152/jn.00054.2016 PMCID: PMC5390285 PDF SD


  • Bush NE, Solla SA, and Hartmann MJZ (2016) Whisking mechanics and active sensing. Current Opinion in Neurobiology. 40:178-188 doi: 10.1016/j.conb.2016.08.001 PMCID: PMC5312677 PDF
  • Bush NE, Schroeder CL, Hobbs JA, Yang AET, Huet LA, Solla SA, and Hartmann MJZ (2016) Decoupling kinematics and mechanics reveals coding properties of trigeminal ganglion neurons in the rat vibrissal system. eLife 5:e13969 doi: 10.7554/eLife.13969 PMCID: PMC4999311 PDF
  • Yu YSW, Graff MM, Bresee CS, Man YB, and Hartmann MJZ (2016) Whiskers aid anemotaxis in rats. Science Advances 2(8):e160071 doi: 10.1126/sciadv.1600716 PMCID: PMC4996642 PDF
  • Kaloti AS, Johnson EC, Bresee CS, Naufel SN, Perich MG, Jones DL, and Hartmann MJZ (2016) Representation of stimulus speed and direction in vibrissal-sensitive regions of the trigeminal nuclei: a comparison of single unit and population responses. PLoS ONE 11(7):e0158399 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0158399 PMCID: PMC4963183 PDF
  • Yang AET and Hartmann MJZ (2016) Whisking kinematics enables object localization in head-centered coordinates based on tactile information from a single vibrissa. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 10:145. doi: 10.3389/fnbeh.2016.00145 PMCID: PMC4949211 PDF
  • Huet LA and Hartmann MJZ (2016) Simulations of a vibrissa slipping along a straight edge and an analysis of frictional effects during whisking. IEEE Transactions on Haptics 9(2):158-169 doi: 10.1109/TOH.2016.2522432 PMCID: PMC5753595 PDF SV1 SV2 SV3
  • Hobbs JA, Towal RB, and Hartmann MJZ (2016) Spatiotemporal patterns of contact across the rat vibrissal array during exploratory behavior. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 9:356. doi: 10.3389/fnbeh.2015.00356. PMCID: PMC4700281 PDF SV1
  • Hobbs JA, Towal RB, and Hartmann MJZ (2016) Evidence for functional groupings of vibrissae across the rodent mystacial pad. PLoS Computational Biology 12(1):e1004109 doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004109. PMCID: PMC4706419 PDF
  • Yu YSW, Graff MM, and Hartmann MJZ (2016) Mechanical responses of rat vibrissae to airflow. Journal of Experimental Biology 219:937-948. doi: 10.1242/jeb.126896. PDF SV1


  • Hobbs JA, Towal RB, and Hartmann MJZ (2015) Probability distributions of whisker-surface contact: quantifying elements of the rat vibrissotactile natural scene. Journal of Experimental Biology 218:2551-2562. PDF SI SV2 SV3
  • Huet LA, Schroeder CL, and Hartmann MJZ (2015) Tactile signals transmitted by the vibrissa during active whisking behavior. Journal of Neurophysiology 113:3511-3518. PDF SV1


  • Huet LA and Hartmann MJZ (2014) The search space of the rat during whisking behavior. Journal of Experimental Biology 217:3365-3376. PDF SV1
  • Quist BW, Seghete V, Huet LA, Murphey TD, and Hartmann MJZ (2014) Modeling forces and moments at the base of a rat vibrissa during noncontact whisking and whisking against an object. Journal of Neuroscience 34:9828-9844. PDF


  • Solomon JH, Locascio MA, and Hartmann MJZ (2013) Linear reactive control for efficient 2D and 3D bipedal walking over rough terrain. Adaptive Behavior 21:29-46. PDF


  • Schroeder CL and Hartmann MJZ (2012) Sensory prediction on a whiskered robot: A tactile analogy to "optic flow". Frontiers in Neurorobotics 6:9. doi: 10.3389/fnbot.2012.00009. PDF
  • Locascio MA, Solomon JH and Hartmann MJZ (2012) Linear reactive control of three-dimensional bipedal walking in the presence of noise and uncertainty. Adaptive Behavior 20:409-426. PDF SV_All SV1 SV2 SV3 SV4 SV5 SV6
  • Quist BW and Hartmann MJ (2012) Mechanical signals at the base of a rat vibrissa: the effect of intrinsic vibrissa curvature and implications for tactile exploration. Journal of Neurophysiology 107:2298-2312. PDF
  • Towal RB, Quist BW, Solomon J, and Hartmann MJZ (2012) Active Sensing: head and vibrissal velocity during exploratory behaviors of the rat. In: Frontiers in sensing: From Biology to Engineering (Barth FG, Humphrey JAC, Srinivasan MY, ed), pp209-224. New York: Springer Wien New York. PDF


  • Hartmann MJZ (2011) A night in the life of a rat: vibrissal mechanics and tactile exploration. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1225:110-118. PDF
  • Quist BW, Faruqi RA and Hartmann MJZ (2011) Variation in Young's modulus along the length of a rat vibrissa. Journal of Biomechanics 44:2775 - 2781. PDF
  • Solomon JH and Hartmann MJZ (2011) Radial distance determination in the rat vibrissal system and the effects of Weber's law. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 366:3049-3057. PDF
  • Towal RB, Quist BW, Gopal V, Solomon JH and Hartmann MJZ (2011) The morphology of the rat vibrissal array: a model for quantifying spatiotemporal patterns of whisker-object contact. PLoS Computational Biology 7:e1001120. PDF SD1 SI1 SF1 SF2 ST1 ST2


  • Solomon JH and Hartmann MJZ (2010) Extracting object contours with the sweep of a robotic whisker using torque information. International Journal of Robotics Research 29:1233-1245. PDF
  • Solomon JH, Wisse M and Hartmann MJZ (2010) Fully interconnected, linear control for limit cycle walking. Adaptive Behavior 18:492-506. PDF


  • Chiel HJ, Ting LH, Ekeberg O and Hartmann MJZ (2009) The brain in its body: motor control and sensing in a biomechanical context. Journal of Neuroscience 29:12807-12814. PDF
  • Hartmann MJZ (2009) Active touch, exploratory movements, and sensory prediction. Integrative and Comparative Biology 49:681-690. PDF


  • Gopal V, Klosowiak JL, Jaeger R, Selimkhanov T and Hartmann MJZ (2008) Visualizing the invisible: the construction of three low-cost schlieren imaging systems for the undergraduate laboratory. European Journal of Physics 29:607-617. PDF
  • Leung B, Pan Y, Schroeder C, Memik SO, Memik G and Hartmann MJZ (2008) Towards an 'early neural circuit simulator': a FPGA implementation of processing in the rat whisker system. 2008 International Conference on Field Programmable and Logic Applications, Vols 1 and 2 , Heidelberg, Germany 191-196. PDF
  • Quist BW and Hartmann MJZ (2008) A two-dimensional force sensor in the millinewton range for measuring vibrissal contacts. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 172:158-167. PDF
  • Solomon JH and Hartmann MJZ (2008) Artificial whiskers suitable for array implementation: accounting for lateral slip and surface friction. IEEE Transactions On Robotics 24:1157-1167. PDF
  • Towal RB and Hartmann MJZ (2008) Variability in velocity profiles during free-air whisking behavior of unrestrained rats. Journal of Neurophysiology 100:740-752. PDF ST1 SF1 SF2 SF3 SV1


  • Birdwell JA, Solomon JH, Thajchayapong M, Taylor MA, Cheely M, Towal RB, Conradt J and Hartmann MJZ (2007) Biomechanical models for radial distance determination by the rat vibrissal system. Journal of Neurophysiology 98:2439-2455. PDF N.B.: Due to a typesetting error, equation A14 is incorrect as published. It should be identical to the bottom half of equation 4 in the main text.
  • Gopal V and Hartmann MJZ (2007) Using hardware models to quantify sensory data acquisition across the rat vibrissal array. Bioinspiration & Biomimetics 2:S135-S145. PDF


  • Reed K, Peshkin M, Hartmann M, Grabowecky M, Patton J and Vishton P (2006) Haptically linked dyads - are two motor-control systems better than one?. Psychological Science 17:365-366. PDF
  • Reed KB, Peshkin M, Hartmann MJ, Patton J, Vishton PM and Grabowecky M (2006) Haptic cooperation between people, and between people and machines. 2006 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Vols 1-12 , Beijing, China 2109-2114. PDF
  • Solomon JH and Hartmann MJ (2006) Robotic whiskers used to sense features. Nature 443:525. PDF SI1 SV1
  • Towal RB and Hartmann MJ (2006) Right-left asymmetries in the whisking behavior of rats anticipate head movements. Journal of Neuroscience 26:8838-8846. PDF SV1 SV2 SV3 SV4


  • Lu H, Hartmann M and Bower J (2005) Correlations between Purkinje cell single-unit activity and simultaneously recorded field potentials in the immediately underlying granule cell layer. Journal of Neurophysiology 94:1849-1860. PDF
  • Reed K, Peshkin M, Hartmann M, Colgate J and Patton J (2005) Kinesthetic interaction. 2005 IEEE 9th International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics , Chicago, IL 569-574. PDF
  • Schultz A, Solomon J, Peshkin M and Hartmann M (2005) Multifunctional whisker arrays for distance detection, terrain mapping, and object feature extraction. 2005 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Vols 1-4 , Barcelona, Spain 2588-2593. PDF


  • Hartmann M, Johnson N, Towal R and Assad C (2003) Mechanical characteristics of rat vibrissae: Resonant frequencies and damping in isolated whiskers and in the awake behaving animal. Journal of Neuroscience 23:6510-6519. PDF
  • Lewis M, Etienne-Cummings R, Hartmann M, Xu Z and Cohen A (2003) An in silico central pattern generator: silicon oscillator, coupling, entrainment, and physical computation. Biological Cybernetics 88:137-151. PDF


  • Assad C, Hartmann M and Lewis M (2001) Introduction to the special issue on biomorphic robotics. Autonomous Robots 11:195-200. PDF
  • Hartmann M (2001) Active sensing capabilities of the rat whisker system. Autonomous Robots 11:249-254. PDF
  • Hartmann M and Bower J (2001) Tactile responses in the granule cell layer of cerebellar folium Crus IIa of freely behaving rats. Journal of Neuroscience 21:3549-3563. PDF
  • Lewis M, Hartmann M, Etienne-Cummings R and Cohen A (2001) Control of a robot leg with an adaptive aVLSI CPG chip. Neurocomputing 38:1409-1421. PDF


  • Hartmann M, Assad C, Rasnow B and Bower J (2000) Applications of video mixing and digital overlay to neuroethology. Methods - A Companion to Methods in Enzymology 21:385-391. PDF
  • Lewis M, Etienne-Cummings R, Hartmann M and Cohen A (2000) Toward biomorphic control using custom aVLSI CPG chips. IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) , San Francisco, CA . PDF


  • Hartmann M and Bower J (1998) Oscillatory activity in the cerebellar hemispheres of unrestrained rats. Journal of Neurophysiology 80:1598-1604. PDF


  • Rasnow B, Assad C, Hartmann M and Bower J (1997) Applications of multimedia computers and video mixing to neuroethology. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 76:83-91. PDF


  • U.S. Patent Application No. 16/102,364. "Processing methods and apparatus to manufacture a functional, multi-scale, tapered fiber from polymer filament." Collinson, David W., Mitra J. Hartmann, and L. Catherine Brinson.
    Google Patents Link
  • US 7,774,951; Sensing device with whisker elements; Mitra J. Hartmann and Joseph H. Solomon; August 17, 2010
    Google Patents Link
  • US 8,109,007; Object profile sensing; Mitra J. Hartmann, Christopher L. Schroeder and Joseph H. Solomon; February 17, 2012
    Google Patents Link
  • US 8,448,514; Sensing device with whisker elements; Mitra J. Hartmann and Joseph H. Solomon; May 28, 2013
    Google Patents Link
  • US 8,504,500; Systems, methods, and apparatus for reconstruction of 3-D object morphology, position, orientation and texture using an array of tactile sensors; Mitra J. Hartmann and Joseph H. Solomon; August 6, 2013
    Google Patents Link